Renewable energy

Types of renewable energy:

  • Solar Energy: most renewable energy comes either directly or indirectly from the sun. This energy can be used directly for heating and lighting homes and other buildings, for generating electricity, and for hot water heating, solar cooling, and a variety of commercial and industrial uses (http://www.renewableenergyworld.com/rea/tech/home);
  •  Wind energy: renewable energy source in the resulting wind shift of air masses, derived from the effects of atmospheric pressure differences between two distinct regions, influenced by local effects such as topography and roughness of the ground;
  • Tidal energy and Wave energy: renewable energy, generated by the amplitude difference between tides or waves, which will produce mechanical work, which will generate electricity;
  • Hydro Energy: renewable energy source in the resulting potential energy flows of water in rivers;
  • Geothermal Energy: renewable energy source in the internal heat of the Earth;
  • Biofuels: fuel from energy crops or natural waste. It is a renewable energy source. Waste from the industrial, agriculture and forestry and domestic waste can be used to produce this type of energy;
  • Biodiesel: liquid biofuel originating from energy crops such as sunflower or rapeseed;
  • Biogas: biofuel originating from the anaerobic biological degradation of organic matter contained in agricultural and livestock waste, agro-industry, or even in urban and municipal solid waste landfills. It consists of a mixture of methane (CH4) in percentages ranging between 50% and 70% with the remainder being mainly (CO2);
  • Biomass: Biofuel originating in products and residues from agriculture (including vegetal and animal substances), residues from the forest and related and the biodegradable fraction of industrial and municipal waste industries;
  • Ethanol: is mainly produced from sugar-cane, eucalyptus and beet. Can be used to operate motor vehicles or to produce electricity;

Advantages of Renewable Energy:

1. Can be considered inexhaustible human scale compared to fossil fuels (such as coal, oil and natural gas);
2. Reduce the use of fossil fuels;
3. 
Its environmental impact is smaller than that caused by sources of energy from fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas), since they do not produce carbon dioxide (CO2) or other gases with the "greenhouse effect" (CH4, CO2, CFC);
4. 
Reduces carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions by improving the better quality of life (cleaner air);
5.  
Give energy autonomy to a country, since its use is not dependent on imported fossil fuels;
6. 
Conduct research in new technologies that improve the energy efficiency.

Disadvantages of Renewable Energy:

1. High costs of investment and appropriate infrastructure;
2. Negative visual impacts on the environment 
3. Biomass energy - the method of combustion of biomass is not clean;
4. Hydroelectric power - causes soil erosion that may have impact on the local vegetation;
5. Solar energy - high initial costs;
6. Wave Energy - depends largely on the location and is expensive;
7. Wind Energy - the initial cost of the turbines is very high. Existence much noise produced.

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